A mathematical model is developed for the assessment of the launch mass of a vehicle designed for a human mission to Mars. The mission involves six stages: (i) ascent from Earth surface to low Earth orbit, (ii) outgoing trip from low Earth orbit to low Mars orbit, (iii) descent and landing on Mars, (iv) ascent from Mars surface to low Mars orbit,
(v) return trip from Refined Vibram Five Fingers Sprint Blue Grey Womens
low Mars orbit to low Earth orbit, (vi) descent and landing on Earth. The basic objective is to minimize the launch mass Vibram Canada Treksport Mens Black VF0130
while containing the total flight time.
The mathematical model includes two parts: interplanetary flight and planetary flight. The interplanetary flight model is based on the restricted four-body scheme and covers the spacecraft transfer from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit and back. The planetary flight model concerns the spacecraft ascent from Earth surface to low Earth orbit and from