behavior?For the most part, our results support earlier findings that sexual dimorphism in the shape of the anthropoid elbow is slight. Of the eight taxa considered here, only the western lowland gorillas exhibited significant differences in the shape of the distal humerus.Gorilla gorilla gorillaalso displays a significantly different pattern of dimorphism from the orang-utan. Pattern differences between Andaman Islanders and both
mountain gorillas and the orang-utan also approach Mens Vibram 5 Fingers Classic Komodo Sport Black Yellow Genuine
statistical significance (P<0·06 andP<0·08, respectively). Overall, and despite marked differences in the degree of dimorphism, the Material Vibram Five Fingers Sprint Purple Gray Womens knuckle-walking African apes are more similar in patterns of dimorphism to each other than to other taxa (e.g., gorillas are more similar to orang-utans in degree, but more similar to chimpanzees and bonobos in pattern). We could find no definitive “human pattern” in our results and suspect that this is because human upper limbs face less stringent mechanical constraints since they are relieved of locomotor stresses (but we cannot rule out the possibility of undocumented differences among our human groups in sex-specific, work-related activities). We anticipate finding additional pattern differences among anthropoids in articular dimorphism as we add other taxa to our sample (including fossil hominids), and examine other joint systems.