um-to-large-seeded shade-tolerant species recruited predominantly under intact canopy. Leaf litter represents a major barrier for seedling emergence and establishment of small-seeded, shade-intolerant species, but enhances emergence Meticulous Vibram Five Fingers Mens Kso Shoes Blue Black
and establishment of large-seeded, shade-tolerant species, possibly through increased humidity and reduced detection by predators. Periodic clipping of the understory vegetation marginally reduced tree seedling mortality, Fabulous Vibram Five Fingers Sprint Rose Womens
but only in experimental gaps, where understory vegetation cover was greatly enhanced compared to intact canopy conditions. Successful regeneration of commercially valuable long-lived pioneer
trees that dominate the forest canopy may require clear-cutting, as well as weeding and site preparation (litter removal) treatments in felling clearings. Management systems that mimic natural canopy gaps (reduced-impact selective logging) could favor the regeneration of shade-tolerant tree species, potentially accelerating convergence to old-growth forest composition. In contrast, systems that produce large canopy openings (clear-cutting) may re-initiate succession, potentially leading to less diverse but perhaps more easily managed “natural plantations” of long-lived pioneer tree species.