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Vibram 5 Fingers Sizing Womens Kso Gray Pink Significance,removal would further enhance recruitment of

Vibram 5 Fingers Sizing Womens Kso Gray Pink Significance,removal would further enhance recruitment of

We experimentally investigated interacting effects of canopy gaps, understory vegetation and leaf litter on recruitment and mortality of tree seedlings at the community level in a 20-year-old lowland forest in Costa Rica, and tested several predictions based on results of previous studies. We predicted that experimental canopy gaps would greatly enhance Vibram 5 Fingers Sizing Womens Kso Gray Pink Significance tree seedling recruitment, and that leaf litter removal would further enhance recruitment of small-seeded, shade-intolerant seedlings in gaps. We created a large (320–540 ;m2) gap in the center of 5 out of 10 40 ;m ;× ;40 ;m experimental plots, and applied the following treatments bimonthly over a 14-month-period in a factorial, split–split plot design: Shoes Vibram Kso Womens Gray Green clipping of understory vegetation (cut, uncut), and leaf litter manipulations (removal, addition, control). As expected, experimental gaps dramatically increased tree seedling recruitment, but gap effects varied among litter treatments. Litter addition reduced recruitment in gaps, but enhanced recruitment under intact canopy. Species composition of recruits also differed markedly between gap treatments: several small-seeded pioneer and long-lived pioneer species recruited almost exclusively in gaps. In contrast, a few medi
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