Mars surface to low Mars orbit. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm is employed to solve optimal trajectory problems of interplanetary flight in mathematical programming format and optimal trajectory problems of planetary flight in optimal control format.
The planetary flight study shows that, due to the large gravitational constant of Earth, it is best to assemble the spacecraft in low Earth orbit and launch it from there, rather than from the Earth surface. To reduce the ratio of outgoing LEO mass to return LEO mass, Shoes Vibram Kso Womens Gray Purple it is best to design the spacecraft as consisting of three modules: Earth return module, habitation module, Mars excursion module.
The interplanetary flight study shows that, for minimum energy LEO–LMO–LEO transfer, the total characteristic velocity is . The round-trip time is 970 days, Vibram Five Fingers Speed Sale Womens Black White VF2419
including a stay of 454 days on Mars while waiting for an optimal